Essential oils are becoming more popular every day as people look for alternatives to help with everyday problems. These essential oils are easy to find and simple to use, which is what we all want when we’re dealing with health issues.
The benefits of essential oils are also becoming more clear. Specialist manufacturers are blending specific ingredients together to create something of benefit to the user. This means that whatever your ailment there’s probably an essential oil that’s designed to help.
Essential Oils for Sinus Infections
Anyone who hasn’t suffered from a sinus infection is incredibly lucky. It’s one of the most common problems that we all suffer from a couple of times a year where our nasal cavities become inflamed and swollen. Usually this is caused by an infection from a virus, but it can be caused by bacteria or rare fungus.
A sinus infection makes it more difficult to breathe and speak making daily life a lot more of a struggle. It causes tiredness and fatigue, meaning you just can’t operate at your best.
Essential oils have been shown to give relief for those suffering from sinus infections. Certain herbs and plants are used to help relieve the symptoms, but also strengthen your immune system and give you energy to deal with your daily life.
There are a lot of different blends specializing in aiding those with sinus infections. Each of these will contain similar ingredients to help with the healing. You should look out for:
Ginger has long been used in medicines for treating sinus infections, and is still used by singers to improve vocal range. It helps reduce inflammation making it easier to breathe again, helping the respiratory system.
Known to provide energy and often used as an anti-inflammatory, Rosemary is important for helping reduce the stress on your body. It also helps clear your lungs and let your breathe deeply again.
Cinnamon is common in home remedies for sore throats and colds. It helps prevents the buildup of mucus and clears your nasal passageways. It also helps fight against any infection in the body.
Lavender is known for its pleasing scent but it’s also effective at calming the body. It relaxes the nervous system and helps to fight inflammation and infection, letting you get back to normal more quickly.
Other key ingredients to look out for are: chamomile, tea tree and melissa which are all used to help with sinus infections.
Whether you’re selecting a single essential oil or a blend, for the best results you’ll want at least a few of the items listed above.
Which Essential Oil to Use
There are a number of essential oil blends available to buy online or in stores. Generally speaking you’ll want to look for those containing some of the key ingredients listed above because they have been shown to work well.
There are a lot of essential oils around and some have varying effectiveness. Make sure to look for the key ingredients listed above.
For a list of the best oils and blends go to: http://oilingpoint.com/best-essential-oils-for-sinus-infection/
Termites can hide inside the floorboards, walls and other hidden areas of the home without being noticed for along time. When the homeowner finally realizes they have an infestation, it may cost them a lot of time and money to get the problem fixed. By that point, the termites may have destroyed a lot of structural materials and can create some serious problems that will take a lot of effort to clean up and repair.
In order to catch the problem early on, we want to show homeowners some of the signs of infestation. There are some things that they can look out for that will clue them in to a termite infestation before they may actually see the critters.
First, they want to look for holes in the wood. These could be in floorboards, baseboards, molding, frames, window sills and more. If there are some small holes in the wood, it could mean that termites have borrowed through. Their tunnels weaken the structural integrity of anything they eat through, and that can cause a collapse or breakage later.
That’s the next thing to watch out for- wooden items breaking easily. Chairs and other furniture are just as susceptible to termite damage as anything else made out of wood, so if they are starting to fall apart, it may be time for the homeowner to call for pest control in Greenville, SC.
Another sign of termite infestation could be damp spots. This can mean that water is leaking in through the tunnels that the termites have created. Any damp wood is suspect and should be examined closely for signs of termites.
Muddy tunnels may be created by the termites to get them safely from one spot to another, so homeowners should look for these mud tunnels throughout their home and on the outside of their house.
Any homeowner who suspects that termites may be in their home should call for pest control. They can use the resource pest control in Greenville SC to find a reliable pest control professional. It’s better to be safe than sorry when it comes to termites, so any suspected termite activity should be followed up with a professional inspection to ensure that there are no termites present or to remove them from the home by professional pest control measures.
If you are looking to get in shape fast, you have probably come across hundreds of diets that are supposed to help you slim down in record time. While it is tempting to just dive in blindly and see how it goes for you, there are more prudent ways on how to reduce weight without having to endanger your health. Buy online from NHS Heroes at https://www.nhsheroes.co.uk/
Here are some of the options you might want to look at:
The 7 Day Plan
Perhaps you are about to get married and you want to make sure you fit in your wedding gown perfectly or maybe it is just after the holidays and you are looking to shed off some weight so you are in top physical shape before going back to work. Regardless of what your motivation is, a 7 day diet plan to reduce weight would be grueling and stringent as it requires strict adherence to a very specific meal plan.
For the most part, this requires abstinence from all carbohydrates especially starchy foods such as rice, potatoes, etc. In addition, it does require intake of green vegetables and fresh fruits to effectively cleanse the digestive tract and get as much energy as possible.
This is the best diet plan to reduce weight if you are in a big rush but it does require utmost commitment.
High Protein Regimen
While crash dieting might get you results quickly, it is still more advisable to get on a more sustainable program that you can use for a long stretch of time. Some fitness experts would argue that the best diet to reduce weight is still low carb-high protein because it creates calorie deficiency which is what the body needs in order to lose weight.
This particular diet plan requires eating only lean meat such as beef and chicken. In addition, you would also have to abstain from fast food and other pre-packaged food products that contain loads of trans fat and other preservatives.
Among the diet tips to reduce weight you have come across, the one you should definitely heed is to practice cooking your own meals in accordance to the specifications of your diet. It is easier to lose the extra pounds when you are not constantly tempted to order a pizza or drop by a greasy Chinese food joint right around the corner from your place.
In choosing a diet program, keep in mind that your health and safety always comes first. There may be a number of ways on how to reduce weight but the bottom line is to put your well being first and foremost.
Find a product that everybody wants and sell it if you want to make a lot of money. The trick here is finding the right product. Maybe you could sell the products of other people Gather Australia that have already been manufactured and proven.
Find a product that everybody wants and sell it if you want to make a lot of money. The trick here is finding the right product. Maybe you could sell the products of other people that have already been manufactured and proven.
Well, that’s being done every day by more and more people just like you who are making good money by becoming whats known as an affiliate marketer. In affiliate marketing, its an Internet based marketing practice in which you bring customers to the business website and you’re paid for your efforts.
To drive traffic to the website where the purchase is made, one website is used. When this is done, or an item is purchased, the associate gets paid or gets a commission.
Since its inception more than a dozen years ago, affiliate marketing has grown steadily. There are several ways to receive compensation. Most affiliate programs use revenue sharing or cost per sale. Others use cost per action or cost per click. Sending visitors through your affiliate link is your job.
Because theres little expense to them unless a sale is made, merchants like affiliate marketing. In affiliate marketing, youre rewarded according to your performance which is why its also called performance marketing.
You wont get paid unless you perform. Most affiliate programs and affiliate networks offer free participation when you fill out the required forms and get approval. They would want to see your website.
Develop a website, blog or forum on something you know and love and it becomes much easier. Because people search the Internet for information, they may click through your affiliate link for additional data where the sales pitch is made. What you need to do is turn your knowledge into content and then it will turn into income.
To delight your visitors, the website youve created needs to be attractive and professional. If possible, find a niche market and specialize in something that has less competition. Your should find it easy and convenient to click through to the affiliate. Keep them happy with your knowledge and reputation.
Theme-based websites are best. For example, cooking exotic dishes with tasty recipes. Because of this, its possible for you to be in good position to market to companies who sell cookware, cookbooks, and food used to prepare dishes.
Sewing unique fashions is an excellent idea if thats your talent, leading to a market for fabric and clothing stores. There are a lot of theme based list. Being creative and calling upon your expertise and talents is what you can do.
You can start part time in affiliate marketing with little money although its rarely a get rich quick scheme. You could develop a respectable income with proper planning, learning, and a little work.
They’re everywhere you look nowadays. Car trailers are really popular with large families for some reason! Let us take a closer look at the reason why car detailing melbourne trailers are so useful as well as popular.
The first motive is that they aren’t criminally costly. Any person that is the owner of a car should be able to afford to buy a vehicle trailer to store things in whenever they go camping or even on holiday for an extended time period. There are plenty of car trailers on the market and it ought to be fairly easy to find one that matches both your needs as well as your pocket. If you’re not able to do so you will want to re-evaluate either what you would like to get or your budget to be more realistic.
Another reason that car trailers are extremely well-liked and common is they make your car’s carrying capacity a lot bigger. This is actually great if you are planning to be going on holiday with a wife and also a adolescent daughter or two as they tend to load up lots of things into a large amount of luggage and not every thing will fit into the typical car trunk.
Of course, having a car trailer and being able to pull it does need a couple of little alterations in some vehicles. The fitting of the tow bar and also a socket for the car trailer to plug in to so that it can power its indicators and lights. Each and every car trailer will need working lights according to the law which means you better be sure that your car has these things on it before you go on your journey.
Then there’s moving house. A car trailer is actually useful here since it enables you to fill up both your vehicle and the trailer with stuff that will need to go to your new house which means you will need to do fewer trips and may not need a moving company to move.
Car trailers are in fact really useful things to have around. It makes all kinds of travelling as well as moving much easier and you will generally have to do less trips to transport the same quantity of things.
Clearing up following the floodwaters recede and becoming dry is just the start of the article-flooding worries.
Residential flooding following hurricanes, torrential downpours along with other serious climate activities is flood restoration melbourne among the many fatal complications confronted with a homeowner.
Becoming dry and clearing up following a ton could be a difficult, costly and all around training (excuse the pun) encounter with much interest paid to save what hasn’t been stated by floodwaters. Nevertheless, are certainly a few unwanted effects of flooding – some a little, some standard sudden based on your geographical area – that may negatively influence the well-being and in one single situation, sanity. To be organized just for about everything – amphibians for that benefit, natural sewage and lizards involved a look is here’sed by – at five unwanted effects of home flooding to become conscious of.
Frustrating, possibly lethal and unremitting, mosquitoes amazingly seem out of left field to damage backyard BBQs. Near or straight in systems of flat water of virtually any form, dimension or type – wetlands, puddles, ponds, irrigated pastures, channels, blocked gutters, flower containers, half-vacant birdbaths and also the record continues – is where body-eating mamma mosquitoes decide to place their eggs. And usually, these illness-transporting vectors within their type don’t that is person stray much from wherever these created.
Residential flooding from other resources along with high summer rainfall may mean trouble as it pertains to effects of skeeters.
The most truly effective method to handle insect numbers pursuing extreme rainfall and flooding is through supply reduction or even the removal of the locations where these especially annoying bugs reproduce and flourish – an incredible cause to have rid of these aged tires, containers, plastic wading pools or seldom used wheelbarrows junking up your yard.
The variety health issues which come alongside extensive contact with spores and also from development are an enormous problem following flooding that may happen within dangerous climate activities, for example, hurricanes’ aftermath. Stained surfaces and roofs, indicators of a bad, damp smell along with water damage are giveaways that motion ought to obtained quickly.
If in question, a mold remediation expert might help determine the visible presence of wellness-diminishing tiny fungi. Nevertheless, nose and your eyes are usually the very best methods to identify an invasion.
A fundamental, preliminary action would be to eliminate all moist belongings and building supplies from the house as suggest from the Facilities for Disease Control of flooding within 24 to 48-hours. If it Can’t be dry, washed and changed, they ought to dumped – this especially pertains to roof tiles, flooring, and drywall. It’s essential to additionally oxygen a house out by opening windows and gates and using followers, air conditioners and dehumidifiers. Washing partial- porous products with perhaps a new form remediation item or soap may more avoid mold development as may primary humidity control methods, for example, repairing leaks growing air-circulation, washing air channels and removing resources of interior condensation.
Large, constant rains may mean reduction that is nice in famine-susceptible places but with torrential downpours comes a side-effect that is rather ugly: backed up mixed sewage lines or sanitary. Extreme levels of stormwater by local flooding brought on may enter overworked sewer systems leading to malodorous cellar disasters, overflowing bathrooms, organic wastewater – and much more drain. And, unbeknownst to a lot of homeowners, sewage-associated copies aren’t included in many homeowner’s insurance procedures or flooding insurance; more often than not, safety against blocked personal (horizontal) and primary sewage collections should be bought individually being an additional driver in a minimal price.
Cleanup adhering to a wastewater copy demands that homeowners practice extreme care provided the chance of coming with deadly infections in immediate contact. The Boston Division of Environmental and Power Affairs provides on the best way to continue a thorough manual.
Several ton-troubled homeowners, busy with saving processing insurance statements and belongings, frequently don’t keep in mind that with increasing seas occasionally come unwanted instead and – nightmarish houseguests – within venomous reptiles’ type.
Following a historical flooding that influenced big swaths of Australia in 2011, a significant number of poisonous homeless snakes (and crocodiles) terrified surprised citizens of Queensland battling to dry up. Which is just a trend not restricted to Right Here?
Along with mosquitoes and snakes, flooding around houses can occasionally result in invasions of the amphibian selection. In a sad and rather severe instance, Paul Marinaccio Sr. was granted $1.6 trillion in payment after flooding from the growth near his Clarence, N.Y. house switched his 40-acre home into a frog- wetlands that were large. Unnerving & most probable loud without a doubt, but Marinaccio was suffering from the flooding as he is affected by a fear of frogs arising from the painful childhood event that included a crazy man chasing via a French winery him brandishing bullfrogs.
There are so many reasons to upgrade your house with a home extension, from home renovation including a room or a downstairs bathroom to making a playroom for when your household appointments or adding a conservatory ideal for relaxing and socializing in summer. Including to your house is a choice that is huge, however, and there are lots of stuff before putting the first stone, to consider.
1. Think of your budget
Establishing your budget must be the very first point you do – sit down and determine not simply how much reserve budget you might have just in case new buys are expected although just how much you would like to invest. Don’t neglect to include payments for experts like surveyors or architects and also the expenses of any planning application. Also, most quotes you receive will exclude tax, thus don’t forget to add on if you need to – to be safe, add on 20%, this.
2. Future proofing
Verify whether your design fits with all the present subject of the home and avoid going overly trendy. ’ it may look fantastic for a year approximately, in case you get an expansion that’s a design that’s very much ‘of the present time, but after that trend vanishes, you’ll be stuck with that. This may allow it to be difficult as it pertains to selling the home, potentially knocking down the worth of the entire property or getting would-be customers change it down it. What’s more, it is critical to directly take into consideration the home together with the topic of the vicinity. If you are now living in a quaint, traditional street, then a showy addition to your home is unlikely to go down nicely with all the others residing there. Make sure the extension on your home is in fitting with the remaining part of the street – the neighbors will be a lot happier, and it should add your dwelling and lots of value.
3. Plan your timescale
Extending your house takes period, aside from the bodily build-time demanded, only getting planning permission and building regulations approval can simply take weeks. You ought to also contemplate the time of year and factor in things like vacations, events as well as other instances when you’ll desire total usage of your house. It’s additionally crucial that you think about this stuff as the vacation seasons will invariably impact on their availability, in regards to your contractors, architects and planning officials.
4. Are you in a conservation region?
You are going to need to check with your council whether your home is in a specified preservation area or is an outlined creating as there might be very strict controls governing what alterations you can and cannot make.
5. Think about hiring an architect
Improvement endeavors that are essential and dwelling extensions usually are not simple DIY jobs, and it’s probable you are going to desire the professional services of an expert, the truth is that part of the planning application may require incorporating plans made by a professional architect or a structural engineer. Moreover, specialists advise on each element of the job and can you through the entire process.
6. Place, location
You have to determine reasonably in early stages where you need to build your expansion. The most common choice for producing extra space on the floor is an extension built on the medial side or to the rear of your property. Attic conversions can also be progressively well-liked – s O in case you have the alternative of changing your loft space right into a brand new area it’s undoubtedly worth contemplating as there will be little or no outdoor function required.
7. Get organizing permission
It is crucial to ensure any necessary preparing authorization before you begin to perform on the project. You’re able to submit an application for preparing authorization online using the authorities’ Preparing Portal – make certain you’ve got digital copies of all pertinent documents and strategies to give as these will be necessary during the use.
The council is entitled to demolish the constructing in case you discount obtaining the organizing permission that is best. Should you go to sell the home, potential buyers can be put off in case the proper records aren’t available as the burden of duty would fall on them.
8. Employ good builders
It is likely that you will have to get a company to do the work unless you’re a contractor. If you are using the expert services of a builder or engineer they’re likely to own a few associates, pipeline and suggestions are usually the best indicators of a good tradesman –. Make sure if you can before using the drive, you have a look at their previous work.
9. Take into consideration your neighbors
When workers show up at your house equipped with workouts and ladders, the majority of your friends will be imagining bothers like being woke through to Sunday mornings by building sounds. As that you do consequently, they might maybe not sense as stoked up about-about your recent expansion.
However, if you make an attempt to warn them forward of the period, completing them in on particulars like what you’re becoming completed to your house and why, and, more to the point, what kind of interruption they can anticipate. Filling them in on the hour’s work will probably be done on the house, and just how long it’s presumably to last, will make them feel considerably better concerning the whole process. If you’re acquiring a new conservatory, why not invite once it’s completed the neighbors around for a get-together and display off it?
Preferably, it’s a good idea to lower disruption by ensuring work just occurs all through standard 9-5 office hrs so that the sound may inconvenience people as little as potential.
10. Inform your insurance provider
Acquiring a house expansion will alter your home insurance when it comes to building cover, with all the house today being worth more than it was before – and thus costing more to reconstruct should something make a mistake. It truly is essential that any changes are declared by you to your insurer; meaning you’d not get the settlement you will need if something did proceed incorrectly perhaps not proclaiming everything could invalidate your policy.
Dedicating to a fresh office interior design could be quite a daunting procedure, particularly if this is your first time redesigning your office space. As pros in his position fit outs office fitouts, we typically know what areas are focused on the most and what things to expect. Whether you are a new office newbie or a veteran fit out the pro, there are certain aspects of an office revamp that need focusing on that many businesses don’t realize could be contained in their fit out. If you would like to make your working environment refurbishment a success, take a gander at our three office provide suggestions!
We Have To Know About Your Organization Also
We also need to know somewhat about your company too, although it was telling us the precise specifications of the design that you want for the working environment. As a way to make the perfect office interior that satisfies the particular needs of your business, we’ll need to own some breakdown of what your firm entails, including staff numbers, what sections you might have in place and what these departments that are unique require. The more we can understand about your company, the simpler it’ll be to design an office space that satisfies your business and its needs.
Don’t Forget Concerning the Toilets
A lot of businesses don’t realize in regards to an office environment, how important the layout of the toilets is, although they’re not the most exciting areas to think of. Incorporate a few of your color scheme into your toilets to coordinate with the look and feel of the rest of your office. In the end, it is the same building; your workers still ought to feel like they’re still in their work environment, even when they must use the restroom!
Keep Your Workers Involved
Any work that goes on in your office environment is going to affect the workers that work in it directly. We’re not merely referring that it’ll cause during the refit; the entire design of the refurbishment will probably change the way people get on with their work. It’s always recommended to make one of your staff members from every department as a representative for the staff in those areas of your business to prevent any conflict or confusion when the fit out procedure begins.
They relay the answers back to the staff, ask questions and will be at fault for sending the other workers any details about the fit. By doing this, all employees will likely be kept informed of the change so they could sufficiently prepare for the changes that the office is going to get. Office refurbishments don’t be a difficult scenario. In reality, it could be an exciting time for a lot of businesses, particularly those who have been stuck using an outdated, insufficient office space for quite some time! We’ll be delighted to greatly help get your office back on the right track when it comes to its design.
Electrical energy is now accepted as a clean and universally available source of energy in almost all areas of life One exception is solar panels brisbane road traffic. Despite the fact that EVs dominated the early development of motor cars, the ICE has prevailed because of the high energy density of petrol.
Meanwhile, the increasing weight of traffic in built-up areas is today producing an intolerable level of environmental pollution from exhaust and noise, endangering the health of those affected and causing considerable damage to buildings and cultural heritage. This trend can, and must, be countered by EVs using batteries as their source of energy.
Initially, electrically driven vehicles used lead-acid batteries as their source of power. The limited range of these vehicles, however, remains unacceptable. Today, significant efforts are being directed towards the development of improved batteries with a higher energy storage-density as well as preparation for their economic production (Table 1).
The sum of the properties of the material system, namely common salt (NaCl) and nickel (Ni), used in ZEBRA batteries has proved to be eminently suitable, so now renewed interest is being shown in electrically driven vehicles as a means of protecting the environment. In addition, ZEBRA batteries can also considerably extend the operating range of electrically driven industrial vehicles.
Each ZEBRA battery is made up of individual cells (Figure 1). The chemical reaction in the battery converts common salt and nickel to nickel chloride and sodium during the charging phase. As it is discharged, the reaction is reversed.
Each cell is enclosed in a robust steel case. The NiCl2 and Na electrodes are separated by a ceramic partition that will conduct sodium ions but acts as a barrier to electrons. The cell reaction can therefore only rake place when an electric current flowing outside the cell is equal to the internal current of sodium ions, the current being controlled during discharge by the resistance of the load.
A molten salt, sodium aluminium chloride, which will conduct sodium ions, forms a conductor between the inner ceramic wall and the porous solid NiCl2 electrode in an electronically conducting nickel matrix. As a result, the total positive mass is involved in the cell reaction.
Apart from the reversible cell reaction, there are no side reactions, so that the coulometric efficiency of the ZEBRA cell is 100 per cent. The completely maintenance-free cells are hermetically sealed by a metal/ceramic combination.
Measurement of the cumulative charge from which the number of rated cycles is calculated;
Measurement of the insulation resistance between battery poles and battery case. For safety reasons a fault is reported if the insulation resistance falls below the lower limit;
Measurement of the battery terminal voltage;
Hearing of the battery during operation.
These data are available to the vehicle management system via a serial interface. The battery is monitored via this interface for prohibited operating conditions. Battery control unit and heating are supplied from the mains or from the battery system, whereby the mains power supply is given priority.
The battery control unit is directly plugged into the interface box which contains the two-pole main circuit breaker and the pre-charge resistor with switch. Therefore, the main circuit breaker is an integral part of the battery system and allows disconnection of the battery voltage from the vehicle. It is operated by the battery control unit and external signals, like a crash sensor.
Reliability and useful life.
These are the most important characteristics for the battery’s use in traffic. Its reaction during normal operation, to possible misuse and to accident situations, must also be taken into consideration.
The useful life is expressed both in the number of cycles and in calendar periods. The cycle life, based on statistically reliable battery test-rig results, is 1,000 full cycles; i.e. the battery can be fully charged and discharged at least 1,000 times before the capacity falls to below 80 per cent of the nominal value. This is independent of the length and nature of the individual cycles. At the same time, durability tests are being conducted in vehicles that agree with the test-rig results and these are being continued. The development target is to achieve more than 1,000 cycles, which equates to a driven distance of approximately 150,000km.
The calendar period, which is influenced by time-dependent changes in the battery, can be estimated from existing extrapolation to be at least five years, as the materials used in the batteries are not subject to any detectable corrosion. Durability tests are also being continued in this respect.
The battery is robust and fault-tolerant. Should a cell break down, it goes over to a low-ohm condition, i.e. it is bridged by a short circuit formed internally. This enables the battery to be operated easily with up to five per cent lost cells. An unexpected battery failure is therefore unlikely. The ZEBRA battery can supply high currents for short periods, as the liquid electrolyte ensures a uniform distribution of current in the cell.
Misuse can never entirely be excluded with batteries. It is thus important to allow for possible faults in the monitoring and charging units. Here too the ZEBRA batteries present no problems. The chemical reactions that occur in the battery as a result of excessive charging and discharging are illustrated in Figure 6.
The standard cell reaction takes place at a cell voltage of 2.58V. When, in the case of overcharge, the available salt is exhausted, NiCl2 continues to be produced at high voltage by the reaction of the nickel with the liquid electrolyte. A current of sodium ions is thereby maintained that protects the ceramic electrolyte against fracture by excess voltage. Over-charging should be avoided wherever possible. If this does occur, however, for example as a result of a fault in the charging unit, the battery is in no way endangered. Once again, this has been demonstrated in excess charge tests. Similarly, the liquid electrolyte develops a protective reaction during excess discharge that, for a few Ah, is reversible. Should a cell develop a fault, e.g. a crack in the ceramic, the same reaction will ensure that the total sodium content is converted. The reaction products (aluminium and common salt) lead to a cell short circuit, are not corrosive and, even at high temperatures, have an insignificant vapour pressure, all of which justifies the categorisation of the ZEBRA battery as extremely safe. The battery is tolerant of excess current, so that a brief short-circuit – which can occur during installation for example -does not immediately result in cell failure. The ZEBRA battery tolerates repeated cooling and, within certain limits, overheating as the steel cell cases will normally remain intact even at temperatures of 500 to 600C with no reactant leakage.
The cells are so constructed that any violent distortion of the cell case will first break the ceramic. Any liquid sodium present mixes with the liquid electrolyte and rapidly reacts to form common salt and aluminium, thus virtually excluding the possibility of any spillage of liquid sodium. This reaction releases only about two-thirds as much energy as the normal discharge reaction that is to a large extent prevented.
In serious accident situations, the whole battery could be mechanically destroyed. Even in such cases however, the battery should not constitute any additional source of danger. To this end, safety test programmes were run in which a fully charged battery, operational at 300C, was dropped on to a telegraph pole crash barrier with a final velocity of 50km/h. The barrier damaged the battery by about 30cm, destroying the cells in the damage zone (Figure 7).
Figure 7: Crashtest of a ZEBRA Z12 battery.
Practically the whole or the stored energy was converted to heat that raised the temperature inside the battery to approximately 700C. The effective thermal insulation kept the outer surface of the battery at a considerably lower temperature. There was no leakage of reactant from the battery, so the battery presented no risk. This test demonstrated the high safety standard of the ZEBRA battery. Further tests are being carried out in connection with applications and new battery types.
Materials, production costs and recycling
The materials required for battery manufacture are freely available in large quantities, so that the raw material supply for a major production series of ZEBRA batteries is secured in the long term.
The production costs are therefore very largely dependent upon economies of scale. An automatic pilot production line has been constructed that is produc-ing a limited number of batteries for trials in vehicle fleets and small series applications. At the same time, series production procedures are being further developed so that significant cost reductions, down to the level of lead-traction batteries, will be possible in subsequent series production.
The best form of recycling is a completely closed material cycle. With the ZEBRA battery, this is also made economically attractive by the use of nickel as the active material. It has already been proven that the nickel in used cells can be easily recovered in a pure form. During recycling, the cells are first heated to operating temperature and short-circuited. This ensures that the remaining sodium is converted to common salt and the nickel chloride to nickel, thus avoiding the need to handle liquid sodium in the recycling process. The industrial recycling process is being so developed that the relevant equipment for large quantities of used batteries will be available in time.
ZEBRA batteries are suitable for all mobile and stationary applications that require chargeable batteries with an energy content of more than 15kWh.
Currently, interest is primarily focused on electrically driven cars and minibuses, as ZEBRA batteries are particularly suited for ZEVs that meet the Californian clean air legislation requirements. However, industrial vehicles and mains energy storage units are also interesting future application areas.